TAKAKURA Sho Meikai University, President, 学長 (50030268)
KAWANOBE Satoshi Tokoha Gakuen University, Faculty of Education, Professor, 教育学部, 教授 (10000001)
OKUDA Shinjo Ashiya University, President, 学長 (00126377)
OKAMOTO Koji Shizuoka University, Faculty of Education, Professor, 教育学部, 教授 (70169150)
ARAI Ikuo Joetsu University of Education, College of Education, Professor, 学校教育学部, 教授 (30000061)
"A Study on the Format of Textbooks and Its Educational Effects" was made concerning textbooks in the national language, mathematics, science and foreign languages in and out of Japan. A Summary of the findings of the study (and some suggestions for the improvement of the format of textbooks in Japan) is presented below.
1. The format of textbooks should be considered from the following two aspects, paying due regard to the level of development of children :
(1) whether it can be enable teachers to teach the basic and fundamental matters very easily, and (2) whether it is effective in enabling children to get familiar with, and to easily learn from, textbooks so as to encourage their active and independent learning.
2. Some examples of suggestions for the improvement of the format of textbooks for respective subjects are as follows :
(1) National Language : With regard to those teaching materials dealing with the explanation of facts, more illustrations, photographs, charts and tables are desirable so as to easily explain such information as would be difficult to explain in a written text only. It is desirable to present more illustrations, photographs, charts and tables as compared with those teaching materials dealing with tales and stories.
(2) Mathematics : There should be more colors and more frontispieces, photographs, etc.
(3) Science : More photographs should be presented on animals and plants mentioned in textbooks and on the specific materials to be dealt with in laboratory work.
More color pages are needed. (For lower secondary schools, in particular.)
(4) Foreign Languages : Along with the progress of "internationalization" in various sectors of society, the development of students' communication capacity is being increasingly emphasized. To meet these contemporary needs, it is necessary to consider the development of textbooks combined with audio-visual materials such as video tapes and CD-ROM.