Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||Toyo Gakuen University|
MIYAI Setsuko t. Toyo Gakuen University, Department of Humanities, Professor, 人文学部, 教授 (10200114)
UMEYAMA Kayoko Toyo Gakuen University, Department of Humanities, Professor, 人文学部, 教授 (20151938)
NISHIMURA Yukiko Toyo Gakuen University, Department of Humanities, Professor, 人文学部, 教授 (70198513)
OGAWA Koichi Toyo Gakuen University, Specially Appointed Professor, 人文学部, 特任教授 (80000652)
INAMURA Mikiko Toyo Women's College, Department of European and American Studies, Professor, 教授 (00248949)
UDAGAWA Fumiko Toyo Women's College, Department of Europcan and American Studies, Professor, 教授 (90248948)
高村 宏子 東洋女子短期大学, 欧米文化学科, 教授 (40216792)
遊 みか 東洋学園大学, 人文学部, 助手 (20286214)
鈴木 顕介 東洋女子短期大学, 欧米文化学科, 教授 (00259079)
長谷川 瑞穂 東洋学園大学, 人文学部, 教授 (70180867)
|Project Period (FY)
1997 – 1999
Completed(Fiscal Year 1999)
|Budget Amount *help
¥7,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥2,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥3,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,800,000)
|Keywords||multiculturalism / race / ethnicity / immigration / language policy / multicultural education / citizenship / bilingualism / 民族 / 教育 / アイデンティティ / 国民統合 / 先住民|
The purpose of this project is to compare "multiculturarism " in Canada, the United States, the Great Britain, and Australia. These countries have political ideals, language, cultural tradition in common and each country has respectively faced multicultural realities today. This project tries to clarify the difference and uniqueness of how and in what historical context the question of multiculturalism has been raised in each country.
Canada, in order to found a solid "independent" nation against "the southern threat (the United States)," peaceful coexistence with Quebec was the necessity . This made Canada a pluralistic society from the beginning. But globalization and the rise of new regionalism in the West (where Natives and non-franco-anglo immigrants live) put a serious challenge to the duality based on anglo-franco bilingualism in Canada, demanding more multicultural policy.
Australia, also introduced multiculturalism as a national policy already in 1970's, had to abandon the "white Australia" policy to secure labor force and strengthen its defenses in order to survive and prosper as a part of Asian economic bloc.
In the United States the controversy over multiculturalism took place in a social reality in which the injustice of discriminative treatment and the lack of economic equality still remain. Multiculturalism has tended to be argued more often in the context of "race" rather than as an immigration or integration policy. The heated controversy over public "recognition" of "minority" cultures has challenged and interrogated the traditional "knowledge" of "national " culture and history.
The Great Britain has faced, in addition to the traditional Celtic "problems", a new multicultural reality today caused by non-white "new immigrants" who came from the Commonwealth of Nations. These "new immigrants," especially "Muslims" raised a question of to whom "citizenship" should be given and what culture should publicly be recognized.