KARIYA Takehiko University of Tokyo Faculty of Pedagogy, Assistant Professor, 大学院・教育学研究科, 助教授 (60204658)
MIMIZUKA Hiroaki OCHANOMIZU University Dept. of Human and Social Sciences, Professor, 文教育学部, 教授 (40143333)
IWAKI Hideo Japan Women's University, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Social Sciencies, Professor, 人間社会学部, 教授 (90114389)
|Budget Amount *help
¥6,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
We surveyed same high schools which they had surveyed 18 years ago, in 1979. At the time, high school hierarchical structure based on academic level, determined through high school examination results, functioned as trucking system. Students were differentiated into courses just as athletes were. Teacher instruction, student subculture, student activity, and career formation differed according to their courses.
However during the last 18 years, the circumstances of high school education has changed on a large scale. First, educational thoughts has changed. Individualism (developing individual talents) and pluralism have gained upper hand. Second, the situation both of high school graduate labor market and of college/university entrance examinations has changed. High school students increasingly go on to higher education, and the entrance examinations become less rigid, more versatile in form. Third, youth culture has changed, introducing new manners and values.
The following are the findings of our research. First, trucking system still remains, judging from the point of career formation. Second, the teacher perspectives on the role of good student no longer concern the student's extramural discipline, and now concentrate more on classroom learning. The difference of the teacher perspectives according to the school rank or truck decreased. Third, students were more involved in learning in 1979, less so in 1997. They study less hard, seeing less significance in studying. Fourth, as the radio of the students go on to higher learning increased, the factors differentiating students' career also changed.
The 11 schools were surveyed are located in two rural prefectures. Interviews were conducted with the headmasters and directors of academic guidance, career guidance and student activity. Also, questionnaires were distributed to and filled by second grade students and all teachers.