|Budget Amount *help
¥4,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,000,000)
The purpose of the study is to utilize children's naive concepts in classes. To begin with, we made survey questions to reveal the children's naive concepts. Such a technique can be used in any type of science classes. In other words, characteristically, these survey questions are the core of the learning modules. Actually we are proposing five modules here. The first one aims to inspire the motivation of learners, and this can be applied in any class. The second module focuses on how to help students go beyond their naive concepts. The third module is meant to be applied to discussions among learners, for example, the class on "growth of plants" for fifth graders. The fourth module is planned to understand the change in thinking of learners. The fifth module focuses on learner's understanding and self-evaluation of their mental satisfaction. The fourth and the fifth modules were actually applied to classes on "sound" in the third and the seventh grades respectively.
In conclusion, three things became clear. First, these modules are useful and effective in real classes, which means that any teacher can achieve approximately the same results once he or she follows the set instructions. Second, in regard to meta-recognition, these modules can be utilized for self-evaluation by the learners. It became clear that they help learners develop a sense of self-achievement. Third, it also became clear that these modules help teachers evaluate their classes. That is, by using these modules in classes, teachers are able to evaluate their classes according to the changes in the learners. We must say, however, that the second module proposed here has some problems to be solved, and this will the focus of our future research.