綿貫 幸宏 北海道工業試験場, 産業デザイン部, 部長
SHIBANO Jyun-ichi Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Engineering, Research Associate, 大学院・工学研究科, 助手 (60206141)
ITOH Manabu Hokkaido University, School of Medicine, Research Associate, 医学部, 助手 (00271677)
白〓 修 北海道大学, 医学部・附属病院, 助教授 (20206296)
白土 修 美唄労災病院, 腰痛脊損センター, 部長・医師
SHIRADO Osamu Bibal Rosai Hospital, Chief Doctor
WATANUKI Yukihiro Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute, Department of Industrial Design, General Manager
|Budget Amount *help
¥12,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥12,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥2,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥4,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥4,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,400,000)
The aim of this research project is to develop an individual design simulator to home care equipment fitted personal physical properties. The following results were obtained:
Considering the human upper limb from the viewpoint of mechanics, every degree of freedom of motion is actuated and controlled by more than two muscles. In this work, a method of numerical analysis of muscle force in a human upper limb was proposed during pronation-supination of the forearm joint and during flexion of the shoulder joint.. Because no muscle force can be calculated from only the equilibrium equations of force or moment, the optimization method using Lagrange multipliers. Muscles were modeled by a straight line from the origin to the insertion. The analytical results were mostly affected by musculoskeletal geometry, in particular, the results for the short muscles of the forearm exhibited such an effect. Therefore, the muscle paths were determined by using a plastic three-dimensional prototype of huma
n upper limb. Parameters in the object function of the optimization method were selected to express the muscle properties acting only in the direction of the contraction. Therefore, the synergist and the antagonist could be separated analytically. The results obtained from this analysis were confirmed by experiments using electromyography.
Not only handicapped people but also elderly people living in Hokkaido, the northernmost island in Japan, desire to participate in outdoor activities during a winter season that is characterized by heavy snow and low temperatures. Most of these people venture outdoors to go shopping or to hospitals, even under severe conditions. A wheelchair is generally used for outdoor transport. There are, however, many problems with using a wheelchair during the winter; roads covered with snow and ice are very slippery, casters are easily buried in snow, and handrims are too cold to handle. Therefore, an appropriate wheelchair for outdoor use during the winter season is greatly desired. We are developing an electric wheelchair effective for outdoor use during the winter. In this work, three types of electric wheelchairs with front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and front free casters, and rear-wheel drive and mechanically controlled casters, were tested for drivability on icy roads, snow-covered roads, and indoor floors. In addition, computational methods were proposed to simulate the drivability of electric wheelchairs under snowy conditions. In winter use of an electric wheelchair, it is much important problem that the discharge capacity of battery extremely drops for low temperatures. In this work, batteries for the electric wheelchair were examined on charging and discharging under constant lower temperature. Batteries covered with foamed polyethylene were also tested at the same condition. In addition, we carried out driving tests of electric wheelchair to investigate discharging ability on fresh-snowed road and compact snowed road in winter and normal road in summer.