This research aims at the citizens' being worth living in Plato's Republic. First, head investigator specfied the contexts PLato is concerned with citizens being worth living. With this studied, then, it is proved that the citizens' being worth living is under certain restrictions. According to the conclusin this research reaches, the restrictions mentioned above are divided into internal and external.
The latter restrictions, for the most part, are put out in the context of cooperative relation of gymnastics and medicine. At the same time they are presented not only as conditions which prevent the active scheme of commonwealth from self-disaggregating, but as alarm to the commonwealths which enjoy prodigal expenditure endlessly.
On the other hand, the former restrictions, that is, the internall restrictions appear not merely as Plato's attitude, which is very difficult to evaluate, an attitude insufficient to specify the reparation between those who commit crimes and those who are patie
nts, but as Plato's attitude which allows the ruling class to tell a lie in dealing with marriage and reproduction.
This research has another aim. Book 1 of Republic has long troubled scholars, for it seems markedly different in tone and substance from the rest of the work. Another purpose of this research is to find an internal moment in Book 1 which necessitates arguments of other nine Books.
Some commentators argue that Book 1 shows the focus of Plato's criticism to make 'a radical new departure in ethical theory' from Book 2. So, Book 1 has been even regarded that it 'was written earlier than the rest of the Republic, and had led a life of its own as a separate dialogue'. Others suppose that Book 1 'is an introduction and is not intended by Plato to be a complete, or even a fully cogent, treatment of the issues'. In short, both sides agree that insufficient arguments of Book 1 give rise to a fresh restart in Book 2. In this research, however, Book 1 seeks arch_ of asking, 'what is justice' . It means, Book 1 determines the way of description in the Republic.
In fact, we may point out some unusual, even distorted, characters of Book 1.For example, Book 1 presents 1) the techn_ of cooking(mageirik_, 332c-d) ; this has been described as a species of flattery(Gorg.462d-465e, 518b-c), and 2) the techn_ of wage-earning(misth_tik_, 346a-d) ; this is strange as a techn_, because it would be common to all technai, so it lacks its own field of expertise. We are, however, misled if we say these as Plato's careless or intentional mistake. Because, In 'speaking' these as technai, the assumption, 'rulers rule ruled in a polis', is prepared and expressed which is a fundamental in the Republic. These will be the points in interpreting Book 1.
This research examines three dialogues of Book 1 in order ; with Cephalus, with Polemarchus, and with Thrasymachus. Less