|Budget Amount *help
¥1,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
The present study examined the effect of optimistic personality upon the judgment of contingency (cognitive/optimistic bias), and it examined the effect of optimism and cognitive bias upon the subsequent learning task and stress adaptation.
In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to filling out the questionnaires about optimism : Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ), Hopelessness Scale (HS), and Life Orientation Test (LOT). They were presented with 8 problems, consisted of 2 outcomes (noise-avoidance or point gaining) and 4 contingency [P(Outcome|Response) and P(Outcome|No Response) : 25-25, 25-75, 75-25, 75-75]. The optimistic subjects, measured with ASQ of negative events, showed positive bias for 75-75 noise-avoidance task, and they showed negative bias for 25-25 point-gaining task.
Experiment 2 examined whether or not the optimistic bias prevent the interference effect that the experience of probability noncontingency (50-50) retard subsequent avoidance learning. Results indicate that subject, who did not show the bias for noncontingency, more retarded in the test task than the biased and control subjects.
The follow-up survey of Experiment 2 indicated that subject, who had negative bias for noncontingency in Experiment 2, have increased stress responses for natural stressor.
These results suggest that optimistic bias based on the ASQ is self-serving defense mechanism, and pessimistic realism of noncontingency is vulnerable factor for stress.