|Budget Amount *help
¥3,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,800,000)
Very little is known about organizational members' psychological resistances (excuses for being averse) against change. This theoretical and experiential study, first, confirmed seven kinds of resistances through factor analysis. Among them, passive climate against change, busyness in daily works, and scarcity of positive incentives through change were stronger. Based on the data obtained from 54 managers and repeated at one year interval, causal effects of their perceptions of resistances existed in workplace upon their behaviors to introduce changes were analyzed. Although each resistance had some different impacts, managers who deemed resistance relatively weak become to increase their behaviors for change.
Secondly, the recent trends of structural change in work organizations were explored. Survey questionnaire was asked to answer for 651 Japanese major companies. Every organization could be delineated as having three kinds of structure ; that is, "hard, " "semi-hard, " and "soft" structures. In this study, changes in "hard" structures, such as structure of business domain, organization design, personnel and reward system, were concerned. It is revealed clearly that so called "Japanese normative systems" recognized in those hard structures were under alternation Making hierarchical structure of the workshop into flat, introduction of "management by objectives"(MBO), and practices of merit based reward systems are apparently and rapidly progressing. Data showed that, if those practices are successfully accepted by employees, significant positive relationship are showed between change of hard structure and the height of organization performance level. The necessary characteristics of organizational climates (soft and semi-hard structure) which might determine the successful implementation and settlement of changes in "hard" organizational structure were also suggested