|Budget Amount *help
¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
The purpose of this article is to examine the formative process of class in primary education in Meiji era, focusing on class promotion system.
1. In early Meiji era, there were adopted class system ranked by academic attainment (Tokyu-sei), whose principle was to organize student groups whose memberes had equal academic abilities.
In approving promotion, however, they took it into consideration not only test score but also other facts, ror example, school attendance, behavior, learning attitude and so on. In addition, there were many multiple classes in practice.
Academic attainment criterion tended not to be weighted in approving promotion. Do Jure and De Facto were quite separated.
After 1881, the moral education policies were strengthened. The weights of test score and daily learning attitude were even in moral education (Shushin). The personal appraisal was introduced as approval criterion in 1886. Single-year promotion system was adopted in 1885, in which all students were upgraded e
very school year. Multiple class was institutionalized in 1886. A series of class organization policies promoted to reduce the significance of academic attainment as a promotion criterion.
2. Grade-class system (Gakkyu-sei) was adopted in 1891. As for class upgrade, approval had been based on test score till 1901.
However, the weight of test score was decreased at approving promotion and/or graduation. Because the code "Daily behavior and learning attitude was took it into consideration in approving promotion / graduation." was stipulated. The measurement of academic attainment was more neglected.
3. As school attendance rate rose, school size was enlarged and class grading system by age was appeared. The approval of promotion and/or graduation by test score was abolished in 1901. It promoted the diffusion of class grading system by age. That is to say, what made class grading system by age is the differentiation of promotion approval criterion.
4. Generally speaking, teaching units have been composed of different attainment students. (especially in multiple class, single class school) In case of Tokyu-sei, the units were organized mainly by academic attainment, by contrast, in case of Gakkyu-sei, the units were organized mainly by age. Concerning that other factors except academic attainment were used as promotion approval criterion, however, there were no difference between both grading systems. Since about 1900, tracking system have been took into practice, in which some learning units were organized according to students' academic efficiencies in a single grade class. As for the way of organizing class, however, It was the same as class organization policy before.
We can find the educational significance of student group in class system as students life unit, not as learning unit. Less