|Budget Amount *help
¥2,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
Through studying the above-mentioned project, I could get finding as follows.
(1) In France, the system of guidance of students is established and they have tried to find the better system of guidance to satisfy students' choices based on their aptitudes. The lower secondary schools called colleges (4 years) have a role for this guidance, in the upper secondary schools called lycees (3 years) students determined their upper courses. In this lycees, they can change their courses to go up through specials classes, which is one of the characteristics of French education.
In order to facilitate the transfer between courses, the special classes are provided, which are classes passerelles, concretely classes secondes speciales and classes premieres d'adaptation. These classes were expected to promote the transfer of students, but they did not function well perhaps because of the thinking of French on aptitudes. But this institution is useful implications for educational reforms.
(2) The Baccala
ureat is the certificate of lycees, and at the same time, the admission to universities. Because of popularization and diversification of secondary education, the baccalaureat has also been diversified and specilised to repond the need of students. Around 1990, it counted about 10 courses to correspond to the same number of Baccalaureats (A, B, C, D, D', E, F, G, G', H, Bpro according to the categories 'literature, sciences, social-economics, technology, professionals.' It was expected to for students to transfer between these courses, but it was very difficult, rather impossible. The above mentioned classes passerelles should have to promote transfer students of professional sections to technological section, which baccalaureat technologique allow to go on to universities. Only a small number could transfer to the technological.
In 1995, the number of Baccalaureats was reduced to 3 categories, genral, technological and professional. This integration of Baccalaureats and cousese might make easy to transfer between course. But it is right that the special classes like classes passerelles always remains possible mesure to facilitate students transfer according to their aptitude, aspiration, life-style, etc. Less