|Budget Amount *help
¥2,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,700,000)
The purpose of this study is to make clear the following problems really.
1. At the schools turned into the refuges after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, how did teachers operate the refuges? 2. All kinds of problems such as the troubles between the three -- teachers, sufferers and the administrative organ and regulating their contact. 3. Various problems, for example, doing two things(teachers' work in the refuges and their educational activities, like classes) at a time and so on. We adopted two means to study. (1) Mass research using a test by answering questions on paper. (2) The study of examples based on fact.
(1)The answering test on all 8, 200 teachers, who were at 285 schools which turned into the refuges after the earthquake, was being conducted. We selected 3,221 teachers (39.0 %)from them and researched by mail. Valid respondents ran at 28.3 % (904 teachers). The following are the major effects of the research.
1. On the day of the earthquake, 49.9 % of the teachers could go to
school. 56.2 % of them went there by their own car, 16.3 % by bicycle, 13.7% on foot, 12.2% by motorcycle, and 26.1 % of the teachers thought they ought to have gone there near their house without keeping toschool they worked for. 2. School classes resumed comparatively early. 63.3 % of the schools spent two weeks on resuming of the classes after the earthquake, and four weeks later 94.3 % of the schools reopened. 3. As some particular attention to children and students, 42.7 percent of these attention was 'mental support" and this took the first place.
Secondly, it accounted for 20.2 % that 'children and students were backward in their studies". Thirdly, "leading students", 13.7 %. These numerical value didn' tdrop after more than eight months. This shows thatstudents were very slow in recovering from being back-ward in their studies and that they couldn't secure a sure means of living because they lived in the refuge. 4. In the operation of the refuge, teacher's mainwork was "answering the door and the phone"(16.9%). Next, 'classifying and keeping the relief supplies"(16.5%). 'Collecting many kinds of information and communicating them"(14.5%). 5.38.5 % of the teachers felt it painful to arbitrate the troubles. 6. The main causes teachers suffered from the stress were "the relationship with their boss"(81.2%), "the problem that they themselves and their family were hit by the earthquake"(55.7%), 'Being behind in classes and backward in studies"(41.3%), 'they had trouble with sufferers"(36.8%), and "leading students"(33.9%). Though teachers themselves were sufferers, at the sametime, they were educators who keenly felttheir responsibility -- they had to recover from being behind in classes. Furthermore, they were operators of the refuge. Teachers, indeed, were distressed to have to play three important roles.
(2)In the study of examples based on fact, we picked out Kobe City Commercial Senior High School, and interviewed to gather data. we could collect data about the states and opinions of teachers, sufferers, and students. They had their graduation ceremony and entrance ceremony at the lecture hall which the sufferers lived in. Students were engaged in volunteer activities and teachers hurriedly in housing and caring for the dead bodies, anddisposing of the excrement defecated by some hundreds of people because they couldn't turn on the water. On the other hand, teachers were in agony arbitrating all sorts of troubles between the administrative organ and sufferers. These things show how distressed teachers were!
(2) 事例研究では、神戸市立神戸商業高校を抽出し、面接法で調査取材し、また報告書や多くの記録や文書を提出いただいた。それらをもとに教員や避難民、生徒の状況と声が取材できた。避難民が生活している講堂での卒業式や入学式、生徒のボランティア活動、教師は遺体の収容や管理、水が出ず数百人の溜った糞尿の処理などに追われ、一方では24時間体制で行政と避難民の種々のトラブルの仲裁に苦悩する教職員の姿が浮き彫りにされた。 Less