|Budget Amount *help
¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Cholera was an enemy to Modern Japan' s health and independence in the late nineteenth century. Scientific research has developed medications and various techniques for the prevention and control of most infectious diseases in the twentieth century.
But in the nineteenth century, the only and most important known, way to protect Japan's health from imported infectious diseases was to quarantine a newly arrived vessel suspected of carrying disease at its port-of-entry. The vessel would be held, until any infected passengers or crew members had died or recovered, sufficient time had elapsed to ensure that no one was incubating the disease, and various cleansing measures had been implemented (J. D. Foley, In Quarantine. ).
In the summer of 1877, Japan experienced its first major cholera outbreak. When the Japanese governmnent learned that a cholera outbreak was occuring' along the southern coast of China, it became concerned that the disease would spread to Japan. So it crafted a temporary quarantine regulation and attemped to implement it in Yokohama. However the British ambassador refused to accept and follow the regulation for its own vessels.
In 1879, Japan adopted another temporary law requiring foreign vessels to be quarantined. It asked major foreign powers to cooperate with the new rule. Great Britain agreed, but had to pass a similar law within its own Parliament before formally adoping Japan's quarantine. Every time it was needed, the same process was followed.
Rather than always relying on the cooperation of major foreign powers, Japan finally established a permanent quarantine system in August, 1899. In some aspects, Japan's infectious disease policy and quarantine issues had a tremendous effect on foreign trade and power relations with other countries.