Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C).
|Research Institution||KYOTO UNIVERSITY|
NAGAI Kazu Kyoto University Faculfy of LeHers. Prof., 文学研究科, 教授 (40127113)
|Project Fiscal Year
1997 – 1999
Completed(Fiscal Year 1999)
|Budget Amount *help
¥2,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
|Keywords||submit for the Imperial sanction / Supreme Command / Military / Civil-Military Relations / Imperial Sanction / Japanese Cabinet system / Japanese Modern History / 帷幄上奏 / 統師権 / 軍部 / 政軍関係 / 天皇親裁 / 太政官制 / 日本近代政治史 / 統帥権 / 帷幄上秦|
1. I have carried out exhaustive researches on the appointment-and-dismissal documents of military officers contained in the Cabinet personnel documents of the National Archives. All governmental personnel documents from 1871 to 1880 were checked, and the devolution of rights to the military personnel management on the military was proved by changes of decision making procedure. Furthermore, an database of the Chief of Staffs memorials to the Emperor contained in those documents was created.
2. All military personnel affairs above lieutenants required the sanction of the Cabinet until December 26,1878 when the Emperor Mutsuhito gave a direct commission to General Nozu without the Cabinet decision.
After that, when an army officer was going to be assign to any position, the Chief of Staff and the Secretary of War submitted to Imperial direct sanction without the Cabinet approval. But in the case of promotion the Secretary of War submitted the application to the Cabinet before the Prime Mi
nister submitted the imperial sanction or reported to the Throne.
3. There was no cabinet document that had the Emperor's stamp of his sanction until September 1877. The Cabinet decision was the last and supreme will of the state in fact and the Emperor who was independent from the cabinet didn't exist before 1877.
It started after September 1877 that sealing of the Emperor's sanction was printed to the Cabinet documents.
4. These above facts show a possibility of giving a new answer to a certain question, why the independence of the military command or the foundation of the General Staff started at the end of 1878. The "Emperor's sanction" should be a premise condition of the independence of the supreme command itself. But it was realized in September 1877 for the first time and the condition for the independence of the supreme command did not exist before it. It can be considered that foundation of the General Staff in Japan was the army's movement for the "Imperial direct government" under the political situation made by "the Emperor's sanction" having appeared. Less
Research Output (6results)