|Budget Amount *help
¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
9. Summary of Research Results : Kinds of affirmative action are targetted hiring, quota, preference program, self-evaluation, etc., and the objects of those are women, race, ethnicity, veterans, and handicapped persons. Recently, while it is still maintained, affirmative action is also being criticized and modified, particularly in the United States. Instead of quota system, class-based preference program is now being introduced, which as a matter of fact can protect minority people. Also, the abolishment of reverse discrimination and of affirmative action after the attainment of its purpose are significant today. In Japan, recent laws for employment equality and the employment of handicapped persons are important. However, these laws are not so effective and to be revised more. There are three types of justification for affirmative action ; compensatory justice, social utility, and distributive justice. However, since these justifications have some deficiencies, we need to accommodate the claims of equality, liberty and efficiency. Being these ideals are connected properly, affirmative action becomes significant.