|Budget Amount *help
¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
There are many possible sources of environmental impact in a city. In this study, all kinds of activities in urban area were categorized into four groups, and energy consumption, which is one of the major index of environmental load used in LCA research, was estimated for human activities in a city of Sapporo.
The four groups defined in this research are : (A) household activity, (B) industrial & commercial activity , (C) transportation, and (D)environmental pollution control facilities. Citizen's life, A, are supported by the latter three. Water treatment, sewage water treatment, and solid waste management are major components of D.Energy consummations were calculated for life cycle stages : construction, maintenance, operation, and waste management. Published research results by other researchers, related statistics are collected, and many sectors of city authority were interviewed.
Total energy consumption is equivalent to 1400 liter of gasoline per person a year. Ratios of the four groups are transportation 44 %, household 36%, industrial & commercial 15%, and environmental pollution control 9 %, In the group D, solid waste management has the highest consumption : 63%, followed by sewage water treatment of 31 % and waste treatment of 6%.
Because solid waste management has the highest impact, a computer program to simulate waste management by municipality was developed, The program can compute cost, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide generation through waste separation at households to landfill. Possible scenarios of waste management policies were evaluated.