|Budget Amount *help
¥3,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥2,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,400,000)
PACE4 (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme) is a member of a family of the mammalian kexin-like proprotein convertases containing a subtilisin-like catalytic domain. To determine the origin of these isoforms, the entire human PACE4 gene Las been isolated as a set of overlapping genomic DNA fragments, and analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and nucleotide sequence determination. The human PACE4 gene spans at least 250 kb and is distributed over 25 exons that range in e from 39 to 1,422 base pairs. Human PACE4 gene is the largest kexin-like proprotein convertase gene reported to date. The most striking feature of its genomic structure is the size of the introns and the number of exons, although the general organization of signal peptide, propeptide, and catalytic domains, which are conserved in this family, is very similar to that reported for other kexin-like protease genes. The structural analysis of PACE4 genomic DNA indicates that multiple PACE4 transcripts are produced as a consequence of alternative RNA splicing events, including exon skipping, and differences in the usage of the inner 5'-splicing donor and polyadenylation sites. A major transcriptional start site was detected 314 bp upstream from the ATG translational start site by primer extension analysis. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed that PACE4 gene lacks TATA and CCAAT boxes in the proximal upstream region of the start site, although potential binding sites for several transcription factors including SP1, AP1, AP2, PEA3, Ets-1, GHF(growth hormone factor)-1, CREB(cyclic AMP response element binding protein), and basic helix-loop-helix proteins, were present. An unusual sequence of six tandem repeats of a nonadecamer (GGCCTGGGGGTTCACCTGC) containing an E box is found in the 5-flanking region. These results suggest that PACE4 is not a constitutive gene product and its expression is regulated by various transcription factors.