Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C).
|Research Institution||Okayama University|
TAKATSUKA Shigenobu Okayama University, Faculty of Education, Associate Professor, 教育学部, 助教授 (70132652)
KAWAMURA Tamami Osaka Prefectural College of Technology, Department of General Education, Lecturer, 一般教養科, 講師 (50280409)
KONISHI Koji Matsuyama University, Faculty of Economics, Associate Professor, 経済学部, 助教授 (30270044)
MATSUHATA Kiichi Okayama University, Faculty of Education, Professor, 教育学部, 教授 (60036895)
|Project Fiscal Year
1997 – 1999
Completed(Fiscal Year 1999)
|Budget Amount *help
¥2,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
|Keywords||communication strategies / strategy training / paraphrase / コミュニケーション方略 / 方略指導 / 言い換え / 言語的手段|
In this study, attempts are made to address the following research questions :
1) What communication strategies (CS) are used for solving grammatical problems?
2) How can lexical and grammatical problems be solved beyond the lexical level?
3) What patters of paraphrase can be used as a CS?
4) How can and should CS be taught?
5) What roles can CS play in second language acquisition?
6) What is the state of the art in CS research and what issues should be solved by future research?
The results of the study give the following answers to each of the questions :
1) CS for solving grammatical questions can be classified by means of the distinctive features [±achieve], [±replace] and [±restructure].
2) Lexical and grammatical problems can be solved beyond the lexical level by syntactic manipulation (e.g. grammatical subject change) and pragmatic manipulation (e.g. indirect speech act).
3) Paraphrase can be classified by means of the
4) CS training should be systematic, integrated, and continuous as an essential activity in the L2 classroom.
5) CS can play varying roles in second language acquisition depending on the conditions they can satisfy in terms of comprehensible input, comprehensible output, input frequency, noticing, and noticing the gap.
6) The issues to be resolved through future research include CS for solving non-lexical problems, developmental features of CS, roles of CS use in second language acquisition, CS use in various types of interaction, research methodology, factors in CS choice, and content/method of teaching CS.