|Budget Amount *help
¥2,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
This study consists of two parts which respectively examine the carbon dioxide problem in Japan and waste problem in Hokkaido under a framework of intertemporal optimization modeling. In the first part, a national economic accounting matrix of Japan's meconomy is estimated indicating carbon dioxide (CィイD22ィエD2) emissions discharged by industries and households. This matrix consists of 32 industries, the government, households, capital, labor, capital account, and the external sector. The volume of COィイD22ィエD2 emissions is estimated being proportional to the volume of fossil fuels consumed in the economy.
An intertemporal computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is then constructed for the analysis of COィイD22ィエD2 emissions problem by employing the accounting matrix as a benchmark data set. In this model, household consumption and saving are specified so as to maximize the integration of present value of the utility function of a representative household over time. Endogenously determin
ed household savings are in turn linked to private capital accumulation. Dynamic numerical experiments are also conducted over 20 years of 1990 to 2010.
Three scenarios are examined in the first part. They are (1) base case (business as an usual case), (2) introduction of carbon tax, and (3) introduction of COィイD22ィエD2 emissions right trading market. Although both cases 2 and 3 are assumed to achieve the same target aiming to reduce the same volume of COィイD22ィエD2 emissions in the final year, economic effects of the two policies significantly differ across industries.
The second part deals with waste problem in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. This study was carried out prior to the first part to confirm the validity of the intertemporal CGE-modeling approach. The structure of the model constructed in this part is almost the same as that in the first part. Six cases are simulated including introduction of household waste charges. Simulation results illustrate that charges imposed on household waste considerably reduce waste discharge yielding another intertemporal resource allocation. Less