SUDA Kazuhiro Hokkai Gakuen University, Faculty of Humanities, Professor, 人文学部, 教授 (00222068)
YAMAO Masahiro Hiroshima University, Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Professor, 生物生産学部, 教授 (70201829)
GOTO Akira Miyagi Gakuin Women's College, Human Culture, Professor, 人間文化学科, 教授 (40205589)
野中 健一 三重大学, 人文学部, 助教授 (20241284)
TAWA Masataka Kwansei Gakuin University, School of Humanities, Professor, 文学部, 教授 (30217210)
KUCHIKURA Yukio Gifu University, Faculty of Regional Studies, Professor, 地域科学部, 教授 (10153298)
|Budget Amount *help
¥14,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥14,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2000 : ¥4,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥5,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,300,000)
In marshlands of Southeast Asia, including mangrove, coral reefs, tidal flat, and freshwater zones, a variety of renewable natural resources have been utilized by local inhabitants, government agencies and entrepreneurs. Present research has clarified the following general characteristics of the resource use in these marshlands ; (1) resource users include foragers (Orang Asli) , specialized fishermen, and farmer-fishermen, (2) resource use patterns have drastically been changed during these few decades, (3) renewable natural resources have been exploited not only for subsistence but also as commodities for local, regional and international markets in which complex ethno-networks are linked together, and (4) under rapid socio-economic changes resource management practices have been implemented at the community-level as well as a joint co-management programs..
Specifically, present research has demonstrated that (1) in three major ecological zones ; e.g., freshwater, brackish and litto
ral, and coastal zones, similar process of resource use is seen as commodity production in market economy systems, but that (2) zone-specific changes have also occurred according to ecological and socio-economic conditions, and (3) conflicts and competition over resources have increased due to high market demand and environmental deteriorations.
In freshwater zones, dam construction, and logging industry in Laos are two major factors to affect aquatic environment and associated productive activities. In littoral and tidal flats or Viet Nam, southern Thailand, mangrove destruction and land reclamation for shrimp and fish ponds, and tin mining have also caused serious ill-effects for fishing and collecting activities. In coastal zones, an increasing number of trawlers and push netters have brought about resource depletion especially of juveniles of shrimps and fish. These changes of three ecological zones have also affected upon neighboring ecological zones on which local inhabitants have depended on their daily pursuits. Integrated programs for sustainable resource management are therefore vitally important, taking interactions between ecological zones being into consideration. Co-management scheme should then be designed not only among people involved, but also the environments themselves, as eco-management. Less