Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A).
|Research Institution||Rissho University|
TAKAMURA Hiroki Rissho Univesity, Faculty of Geo-environmental Science, Professor, 地球環境科学部, 教授 (80062826)
塔西浦拉提 特依津 中国新彊大学, 地理系, 教授
SHIMAZU Hiroshi Rissho Univ. Faculty of Geo-environmental Science Assist.Professor, 地球環境科学部, 助教授 (90251909)
SUZUKI Yuichi Rissho Univ. Faculty of Geo-environmental Science Assist.Professor, 地球環境科学部, 助教授 (70015858)
SAWADA Hiroyuki Rissho Univ. Faculty of Geo-environmental Science Professor, 地球環境科学部, 教授 (00097239)
KADOMURA Hiroshi Rissho Univ. Faculty of Geo-environmental Science Professor, 地球環境科学部, 教授 (80087064)
UMEMURA Hiroshi Chuo Univ.Policy Studies Professor, 総合政策学部, 教授 (90124289)
|Project Fiscal Year
1998 – 2000
Completed(Fiscal Year 2000)
|Budget Amount *help
¥14,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥14,800,000)
Fiscal Year 2000 : ¥5,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥4,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
|Keywords||Remains / Desertification / Water quality and change of river and groundwater / Land use / Hydrological environment / change of temperature and ground soil temperature / Agriculture and stock breed / Ancient oasis communities / 遺跡 / 沙漠化 / 河川・地下水の水質形成と変化 / 土地利用 / 水文環境 / 気温・地温の変化 / 農・牧畜業 / 古代オアシス集落 / タクリマカン沙漠 / 水文環境変化 / 河川流量変動 / 河川分流と遺跡 / 土地利用変化 / 段丘地形 / 社会経済的要因 / 中国新彊ウイグル自治区 / 土地荒廃|
The annual evapotranspiration varies in and around oases in the Tarim Basin. According to our calculations, the annual precipitation is about 25-100 mm, and annual evapotranspiration is about 100 mm at Khotan station. Since the potential evapotranspiration can reach above 500 mm in the oases, in some desert areas it can reach 1000 mm. The oases in the southern part of the Tarim Basin are located between 25 mm and 100 mm isohyet. Many oases in the northern part are located between 25 mm-200 mm isohyet and experienced 100 mm-200 mm isograms of annual evapotranspiration ; therefore, higher temperatures may still lead to a general increase in evapotranspiration.
At present, the length of rivers in the desert changes greatly year by year due to fluctuations in the amount of discharge.
For example, the annual discharge of the Keriya River (1991) is 7.0G×10^8 m^3, and 56% of that discharge (4.0×10^8 leaches m^3), is used as irrigation water for agriculture, while the remainder (3.0×10^8 m^3)
into the ground, recharging the groundwater annually.
The Keriya River basin can be divided into the following four regions by hydrological conditions :
1) In the upper part, which is located in the Kunlun Mountains, the longitudinal change in the chemical composition of river water is complicated because of the conjunctions of tributary streams.
2) The middle part contains an alluvial fan, on the toe of which the Keriya Oasis is located. In this region, the downstream change in the water chemistry of the river water is very complicated.
3) In the lower part, evaporation has a great in fluence on the chemical and isotopic compositions. The river water is more concentrated chemically and isotopically heavier in the lower reach.
4) In the lowermost part, where the Keriya River diverges into some channels, the downstream change in the water chemistry of the river is complex and the groundwater chemistry shows a great regional variety.
The irrigated agriculture practiced in the Minfeng oasis has relied on water diverted from the Niya river. Less