Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A).
|Research Institution||Tokyo Medical Dental University|
YAMAMOTO Naoki Tokyo Medical Dental University, Professor, 大学院・医歯学総合研究科, 教授 (00094053)
TERUMURA Hiroshi Yamanashi Medical University, Lecturer, 医学部, 講師 (50217436)
沼崎 義夫 国際協力事業団ザンビア感染症対策プロジェクト, チーフアドバイザ
宍戸 春美 国立療養所東京病院, 臨床研究部, 部長
SUZUKI Hiroshi Niigata University School of Medicine, Professor, 医学部, 教授 (20091704)
SUGAMURA Kazuo Tohoku University School of Medicine, Professor, 大学院・医学研究科, 教授 (20117360)
御手洗 聡 国際協力事業団ザンビア感染症対策プロジェクト, 長期専門
|Project Fiscal Year
1998 – 2000
Completed(Fiscal Year 2000)
|Budget Amount *help
¥25,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥25,100,000)
Fiscal Year 2000 : ¥7,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥7,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥9,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥9,300,000)
|Keywords||HIV infection / AIDS / TB / Africa / Southern africa / Zambia / South africa / HIV感染症 / 後天性免疫不全症候群 / 結核 / アフリカ / 南部アフリカ / ザンビア / 南アフリカ / エイズ / ジンバブエ / HIV|
Southern Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV-1 infection in the world and the following strategies have been priority in order to improve this situation :
1. To understand the natural history of HIV infection in southern Africa,
2. To develop an affordable and effective treatment for HIV infected people,
3. To develop a safe and effective HIV vaccine,
4. To develop and implement a mechanism that would prevent mother to child transmission(MTCT)of HIV,
5. To develop a faster TB drug-resistant monitoring assay.
In order to understand the natural history of HIV infection, we recruited asymptomatic patients and followed them for 3 years. TB was identified as the highest cause of death in these patients.
A double blinded study was carried out in order to determine an effective and affordable drug for HIV treatment. CD4 counts were high in patients who maintained high drug levels in their plasma.
To determine the distribution of HIV-1 strains in Zambia for vaccine development, we analysed the nucleotide sequences in Lusaka and found the predominance of HIV-1 env subtype C like with the emergence of HIV-1 env subtypes D-like and G-like. There is a need for continued studies to monitor the changing dynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Zambia, especially along the bordering areas.
To determine an effective prevention method of MTCT, we found that intrauterine transmission and during delivery were equally important for the transmission of HIV to babies in Zambia.
We found a high rate of TB drug-resistant mycobacterium in Lusaka.