The present study was to investigate the effects of "encouragement" by a teacher on pupils' classroom adjustment and classroom processes. The subjects ware 244 pupils from 8 classes of 3rd to 5th grade, and 12 target pupils lose whose self-rating scores at the pretest were the lowest in sociometric status or perceived teacher expectation and school morale. A 2(experimental vs. control condition) x 3(pretest vs. under practice vs. posttest) factorial design was used. The five teachers assigned to the experimental classrooms were trained to learn the thory and the skills of encouragement by STEP( the systematic training for effective parenting) program. After that, they were asked to encourage their pupils consistently in their classrooms for 2 months. These pupils were asked to complete the same questionnaires three times: pre, post, and under practise. Dependent variables were classroom attractiveness, classroom atmosphere, perceived teacher expectation, attitude toward his/her teacher, and so on.
The results indicated that pupils in experimental classrooms showed significantly higher ratings of perceived teacher expectation and attitude toward their teacher than those who in the control classrooms at the posttest, where there were no differences between two conditions at the pretest. This tendency was partially found on the behavior observation of 12 target pupils and on the analysis of their personal attitude constructs. It is assumed that the encouragement given by teachers may facilitate a positive relationship between teacher and pupils.
These findings were discussed from the viewpoints of function of encouragement and the possible application to school education and classroom improvement.