|Budget Amount *help
¥2,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,300,000)
Fiscal Year 2001 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2000 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
The aim of this research is to explicate historically original forms of the modern school through to make clear internal relations between formation of the modern school-sytem and reform of the educational-method. 1. In Prussia, at the end of the 18th century, two tides of the Philanthoropinismus and of the Pestalozzianismus were engaged in reforming of the teaching- and educational method, since the beginning of the 19th century, with the momentum of contact with and reception of the Bell-Lancaster System, it bigan to develop conscious reforms of the educational-method, which were bound to reform of the school system. We have thrown modern school figures into relief through investigation of reception and criticism of the Bell-Lancaster System by L. Natorp, G. Girard, the normal school in Eckernforde and erarly A. Diesterweg. 2. Some directly illuminated points are as follows. (1) The Bell-Lancaster System were above all positively appreciated as the 'discipline-practice system' , (2) the modern school-system is the automatic driving device with a built-in engine, (3) there were two tides, one tide appprehended the Bell-Lancaster System as a pedigree of the mutual teaching method, the other tide apprehended it as the 'mutual school system' , not as a teaching method, (4) it was devised the 'classification' of lessons and of schoolchildren, and the 'rank system of achievement' was begun to be made, (5) the property of the modern school is the 'methodization of education' , (6) contrary to the popular opinion, the direct root of class room, school class and simultaneous teach was not the Bell-Lancaster System. 3. The moral education theory, that set up the school-sytem as the subject of moral education, was newly formed. 4. It is also made clear, there was a possibility of the another school image beyond the discipline-practice system according how the 'educational relation' and the driving engine of school-system are apprehended.