|Budget Amount *help
¥2,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,600,000)
Fiscal Year 2000 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,200,000)
From the late nineteenth century to the eve of the World War I, the "first-wave" feminism was formed and developed, not only in the various western countries, but also on the international level, across the nationalities and races. The aim of this three-year research project is to investigate the relationship between British feminism, especially suffragism and two major women's international organizations, the International Council of Women(ICW) and the International Women's Suffrage Alliance(IWSA). Firstly, I reconfirmed that both British national feminist movement and the international women's movement didn't boast of monolithic solidarity, and the latter, through complex processes and after many twists and turns, forged the bonds of international sisterhood. In Britain, women's suffrage organization which during the said period was interested and concerned continuously in women's organizing internationally, was a group of the constitutional suffragists, that is, the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). But NUWSS was not united, regarding the ideas of feminist international cooperation and had subtle differences within it. M.G.Fawcett, president of NUWSS, remarked for women's internationalism in the places, but actually she seemed to be somewhat unenthusiastic. The reasons of her halfheartedness to ICW and IWSA which I found, are as follows. 1. For her and her followers, the enfranchisement of British women should take precedence over that of any other countries. 2. During the said period, NUWSS emulated WSPU, whose militancy was escalated rapidly. 3. Fawcett didn't like to accept that women's international movement was lead mainly by American suffragists, especially C.C.Cat. 4. After the outbreak of WWI, she was torn between loyalty to patriotism and to women's internationalism.