|Budget Amount *help
¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,800,000)
Fiscal Year 2000 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
In the big cities such as Nuremberg and Augsburg, the tours of German journeymen annually immigrated one or four times more than masters. They came from all over in Germany, Northern- and Eastern Europe, and their scope of immigration extended from the 16^<th> to the 18^<th> centuries. Qualitatively their tours based on taking up occupations, but cultural intention, such as to look at the cities, took a great part. The obligation to a tour, which was prescribed in a few crafts-guilds since the latter half of the 16^<th> century, had some effect on them.
The jouneymen-guilds built the network system, which helped journeymen get employment, and which furnished board and lodging, The journeymen in "geschenkten Handwerken" could use the rights of employment, gratuity and jurisdiction. Moreover, the masters had to bear a part of the cost of board and lodging for them. The empire and the cities intended to deprive them of their rights, but succeeded only in respect of the jurisdictional deprivation. After 1573, when the oppression culminated, the restration of their rights varied from guild to guild.
To protect their group norms and to represent their unity the journeymen used violence. But their violence forcast solutions, and concentrated on their honour. Their honor meant honesty as a laborer. When their honor was disgraced, they hotly reacted. The public power intended to put insult cases under its jurisdiction, but the journeymen sometimes controlled the cases with their masters. Because the subculture of the people was firmly-rooted in regard to the honour.