AGURICULTURE IN THE AINU/CULTURAL PERIOD
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||HISTORICAL MUSEUM OF HOKKAIDO|
YAMADA Goro HISTORICAL MUSEUM OF HOKKAIDO, GENERAL AFFAIR DEPARTMENT CHIFE CURATOR, 総務部, 主任学芸員 (00113473)
|Project Period (FY)
1998 – 2001
Completed(Fiscal Year 2001)
|Budget Amount *help
¥2,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2001 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 2000 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
|Keywords||Satsumon cultue / Ainu culture / Farming / Barnyard millet / Foxtail millet / medieval / moder / 火山灰 / 寄生虫 / 駒ヶ岳D火山灰 / 栄浜2遺跡 / 声問川右岸2遺跡 / 寄生虫卵 / 有珠b火山灰 / 高砂遺跡 / ポンマ遺跡 / 鉄製農具 / アイヌ民族 / 中世 / 近世 / 農耕 / アワ|
In the Satumon Culture from 8 c. to 12 c. river fishing and agriculture of miscellaneous cereals of 16 kinds of crops were managed and the products othunting and fishing have been regarded as countervalues of the trade which secured necessities of life. Soon after in keeping with rapid development of the commodity economy, the trading economy with Honshu developed and in 13 c. there was a change from the Satumon Culture to the Ainu Culture.
From that time climatic change commenced and a remarkably cold age appeared in 15 c. and 17-18 c. However in the late 13 c. to early 18 c. eleven kinds of crops were excavated from 8 Ainu Cultural Remains in the regions of Ishikari, Hidaka and Funka Bay coast. From these Remains relatively abundant rice were collected. This fact suggests that Ainu people. at that time obtained large amounts of rice as food crops by a trade with Honshu people, but other crops were produced by the agriculture of the Ainu people themselves. In the regions of Ishikari an
d Hidaka iron agricultural tools are excavated from under the pyroclastic sediments of the middle 17 c. and early 18 c, and in the Funka Bay coast field remains buried with pyroclastics of the middle 17 c. are found. At that time Ainu people cultivated and fetilized their fields using iron agricultural tools.
These fields were rather small as one unit, but they were continuously formed. Except a change of main crops from corns to Deccan grasses there was no great differences of the combination of crops from those of the time of theSatumon Culture. 17 c. to 18 c. was a cold period called as Little Ice Age, but abundant crops such as millets, Deccan grasses, flax plants (Cannabis) and agriculturing tools were excavated, and this suggests that the agriculture was maintained under the cold climate.
In the Ainu Culture there was a gradual shift of life activity into fishing, hunting of terrestrial and marine beasts in the rivers and sea for securing countervalues of trade economy. In the regions of Funka Bay coast, Ishikari and Hidaka cultivations of miscellaneous crops were performed similarly as in the Satumon Culture, but the agricultural activity stagnated by conjugated reasons of strengthened regining of the Ainu people and the supply limitation of iron tools by the Matsumae Clan just after the Battle of Shakushain and climatic coldness in 17 c. to 18 c. Less
Research Products (4results)