STUDY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT AND GENEALOGY OF KYAKUDEN-HOUJYOU - TYPE MAIN HALL IN THE MOMOYAMA - EDO PERIOD TEMPLE
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||KINKI UNIVERSITY|
SAKURAI Toshio KINKI UNIVERSITY, DEPT. OF ARCHITECTURE, PROFESSOR, 理工学部・建築学科, 教授 (60088424)
|Project Period (FY)
1998 – 1999
Completed(Fiscal Year 1999)
|Budget Amount *help
¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
|Keywords||Dwelling-like main hall / Kyakuden / Houjyoh / Shoin / Kyakuden-type -hondoh / Honboh-houjyoh / Tachuu-houjyou / Shuden-zukuri / 近世寺院 / 邸宅風本殿 / 書院 / 近世本堂 / 法堂 / 講堂 / 方丈型本堂|
There are two types of the main hall architecture in the temple. One is the typical type, what is called, Mikkyou - Type-Hondoh which has sufficient and fine exterior and interior appearance. The other is the residence-like-Hondoh- which were built mainly in the early modern times.
In the middle ages these kinds of main hall were seen especially in the Zen-sect branch temple called Tachuu. As is known in the Zen sect all the buildings were erected in the way of doma - type without floor. But the main architecture in the Tachuu called Hohjyoh or kyakuden have exceptionally floors and its type is dwellinglike but has six room plant.
Besides, the same type of architecture is located at the Honboh area, that is the main residential area of the head priest.
In the mikkyoh sect temple, Betsuin or Shiin were erected apart from the main temple compounds. Here, as a model of its main architecture Shindennzukuri-style was introduced and used by the priests who was a son or relatives of the influent
Usually, it is considered that Shindenzukuri-style gradually changed into Shoinzukuri-style in the field of architectural history. But there is none of the very remaining examples of residence in Shoinzukuri-style.
In the every sect of the temple there are dwellinglike main hall called Hohjyoh or kyakuden which belongs to Shoinzukuri-style.
In this study it is referred that the genealogy and the relation between Mikkyou - Type-Hondoh and Hohjyoh or kyakuden-type -hondoh in every sect.
The result made in this study are as follows :
1. Shindenn-zukuri and Shoin-zukuri style having introduced by the nobility changed into religious architecture by setting Naibutsu or Butsuma. In the Muromachi period Shuden-zukuri (four room plan) in the temple made a large change by adding two rooms and made an irregular six room plan.
2. But the irregular six room plan was different from that of Tachuh-houjyoh in point of regular six room plan. The original plan of Tachuh-houjyoh is not clear. By investigating and comparing the old drawings it is conjectured that the drawing was planned in three rows the central of which was a large in size of width and depth and it was made in three long rooms without dividing six rooms.
3. In the Nichiren sect they made and used the type of Mikkyou- Type- Hondoh in the Muromachi period. It is in the early modern times that Kyakuden or houjyoh type main hall appeared. In the former type it has Wakijin in each side. This Wakijin was enlarged in width and Wakijin was made into rooms wakinoma in the early Edo period.
If this wakinoma had been divided into two rooms in front and back, Kyakuden or houjyoh type main hall was established. In case it is said that it reused six room plant of Tachuh houjyoh.
4. Behind the prevalence of six room plan, there were so many danrin's which were a kind of priest school. And there it is most important architecture was a lecture hall called Koudoh, Hattoh, Kyakuden and Houjyoh. Here the plan constituted mainly six room plan, similar to that of Tachuh-houjyoh. It reused in the shape of Honboh-houjyoh.
5. In conclusion Shuden-zukuri (four room plan) in temple (mainly in the Shingon and Tendai sect) developed into Shiin by setting a prayer room and is different from that of the Heian period. Some of them made a six room plan, but it is different from that of Tachuh-houjyoh. Less
Research Products (10results)