|Budget Amount *help
¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
In this study we have shown that in Max Planck's physical investigation processes there had been a turning point from the thermodynamic studies of reversible processes to the physical ones of irreversible processes around 1890. In 1890 he investigated the electric potential difference between two electrolytic solutions with different concentrations. In this case positive and negative ions diffuse due to concentration gradient (electrodiffusion) , so that the second law of thermodynamics in the form of Carnot-Clausius's principle can not be applied to this case. Planck, therefore, considered elementary material mechanism of this irreversible process and its stationary state in detail, then he applied hydrodynamic equations and electrostatics (Poisson's equation) to it, and derived a formula for electric potential difference in the stationary state. When Planck began to research thermal radiation since 1894, he regarded its phenomenon as an irreversible one, which progressed by mutual interactions between linear electric oscillators and electromagnetic waves. His method of theoretical treatment of this case was a succession of the former method in the investigation on irreversible electrochemical processes in 1890.
Also in our research it has been explained that Pierre Duhem had shifted his investigations from equilibrium thermodynamics to irreversible thermodynamics in the beginning of 1900, and his results in the latter investigations were the initial fruits in this scientific field. Since 1900 Planck became an ardent supporter and promoter of the atomistic theory, on the other hand, Duhem kept a hostile attitude against the atomism and the kinetic theory of gases.