|Budget Amount *help
¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
In an analysis of dialogues encountered in cross-aged tutoring situations, we have attempted to indicate what supports or encourages learners to construct their own mental structures. The result indicates that a tutor's advice causes learners to regulate their mental structures. We propose the following model of the developmental process of self-regulation skill: monitoring and controlling.
Monitoring: monitoring (Agent, Target, Level) (1)
Control: control (Agent, Target, Level) (2)
Here we describe that a learner (Agent) monitors or controls his own or others cognition (Target) at some level (Level) as (1) or (2). The agent is defined as a person who monitors or controls. The target is defined as cognitive actions that are monitored or controlled by the Agent. The value of Agent or Target is T (tutor) or L (learner).
We further propose a model of learners' questionings and tutors' advice as follows:
Questioning: tell (Agent, Others, To do) (3)
Advice: want (Agent, Others, To do) (4)
We suggest that a learner asks a tutor a question as (3), because learners' questionings imply that they tell tutors their immediate antecedent cognitive actions (To do). As tutors want learners to engage in proper cognitive actions (To do), we consider advice as (4). As learners' initial questions represent their awareness of incomprehensible concepts, we describe them as (5). The advice that tutors give to learners to regulate their cognitive actions of understanding, we describe as (6).
Finally, we show that the learner appropriates the tutor's control after a tutor's advice as (8). Thus the appropriation might improve the learner' s metal structure, causing a transformation of the learner's question as (7).
tell (L, T, monitoring(L, L, KNOW-ABOUT)) (7)
<-tell ( L, T, monitoring( L, L, KNOW-ABOUT)) (5)
& want (T, L, control (L, L, KNOW-ABOUT)) (6)
& control (L, L, KNOW-ABOUT) (8)