MORO Yuji Tukuba University, Associate Professor, 心理学系, 助教授 (50157939)
UENO Naoki National Institute for Educational Research, 教育指導研究部, 室長 (40124177)
NISHIZAKA Aug Meiji Gakuin University, Professor, 社会学部, 教授 (80208173)
|Budget Amount *help
¥3,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,700,000)
1) Japanese students work at a higher level than Americans ;
2) equipment is more available in Japan ;
3) Japanese classes are teacher centered ;
4) Japanese teachers are better prepared than American teachers ;
5) Professional scientific technicians are rare in Japan, causing scientists to waste time ;
6) social interaction rare in Japanese laboratories, compared with America.
RESULTS SCHOOLS : In the USA school-science begins at a lower level than Japan. Japanese students are expected to do more than Americans. Scientific equipment is more available in Japan. In the USA, students are encouraged to speak, not in Japan where grades depend only on tests. Student-led lessons were never observed in Japan. Funding differs between both countries. In Japan funding is consistent, schools have the same equipment. In the USA, funding is inconsistent, schools in better neighborhoods have better equipment.
RESULTS LABORATORIES : In laboratories in Japan, technicians need to be trained, wasting scientist
s' time. Technicians receive low pay, and positions are highly unstable. Scientists depend on them or students, to complete their experiments. In the USA, technicians have Ph.D.s and stable positions. US scientists need not spend time training technicians, because pre-trained technicians exist. Finally, Japanese laboratories depend on the 'brute force' method of obtaining results, in the USA they depend partially on brute-force, but also on serendipity. In Japan lab leaders decide with little input from underlings. In Japan, scientists work more hours than American scientists. In USA, ideas predominate. Anyone with an idea is encouraged to contribute even if it contradicts current knowledge orsuperious.
RECOMMENDATIONS, FOR JAPAN : Encourage interaction in classrooms, do more experiments than lectures, more creative teaching, follow the curriculum, but not strictly ; create professional lab technicians, encourage ideas from younger scientists.
RECOMMENDATIONS, FOR USA : Improve teacher training in the sciences, make allocation of equipment more equitable, spend more money on equipment, require more of students. Less