MOCHIDA Akashi Tohoku University, Graduate School of Engineering, Associate Professor, 大学院・工学研究科, 助教授 (00183658)
TOKUDA Masanori National Institution for Academic Degrees and University, Evaluation, Professor, 構, 教授 (30006027)
YOSHINO Yasuko Junior College of Nihon University, Department of Construction, Professor, 建設学科, 教授 (90269499)
ZHANG Qingyuan Tsukuba College of Technology, Architectural Engineering, Professor, 建築工学科, 教授 (70227346)
|Budget Amount *help
¥13,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥13,200,000)
Fiscal Year 2004: ¥3,700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,700,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥2,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥3,600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,600,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥3,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,000,000)
The apartment houses under investigation were located in the urban areas of Harbin, Urumqi, Beijing, Xi'an, Shanghai, Changsha, Chongqing, Kunming and HongKong. In each city questionnaire and liquid crystal thermometer were distributed to about 100 families that were arranged by the local researchers. Occupants of these houses were asked to answer a questionnaire, in which the basic information of their buildings, heating period, operation time during a day, clothing, use of heating equipments and thermal sensation were included. In addition, two liquid crystal thermometers were given to each house, one for living room and one for bedroom, for measuring the indoor temperature. The occupants were asked to record the temperatures of living room and bedroom three times a day for 5 days. Indoor temperature and humidity were measured by small data loggers with sensors
1.The actual conditions of housing characteristics, lifestyle, space heating and cooling equipment, etc.were made clear by th
e questionnaire survey.
2.The indoor thermal environment of apartments in nine cities were revealed by the field measurement.
3.In the cities located in very cold or cold zones (Harbin, Urumqi, Beijing and Xi'an), the indoor thermal environment during winter is comfortable due to operation of central heating system. In the other cities, where a local space heater or no heater is used, indoor temperature is relatively low.
4.Thermal insulation is very effective for energy saving in the cities with central apace heating and also for improving indoor thermal environment in the cities with local space heating.
5.In the cities such as Shanghai, Beijing, Chongqing and Chansha, where summer is very hot, air-conditioning system is becoming popular. Energy consumption at the peak time will increase in the near future. It is recommended that passive cooling system like night time ventilation is employed.
6.Calculation of space heating and cooling loads showed the big difference between cities with and without central space heating. Effective technologies for energy saving for each climatic zone should be studied. Less