|Budget Amount *help
¥3,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,300,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥900,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥1,400,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,400,000)
Based on observations of programmes of NGOs in India and Bangladesh, situations and problems off training programmes for universalization of basic education have been analyzed in this research project.
1 Varieties of training programmes by NGOs
a)Pre-service and in-service programmes for instructors, teachers, and programme leaders in non-formal education centres, elementary schools adult literacy programmes of the NGOs,
b) Training programmes for supporting other NGOs,
c) Training programmes for schoolteachers at the request of the government
As most of these programmes take participatory approaches, their strategies are different corresponding to objectives of the programmes, condition and experiences of participants, and idea of sponsors
2 Main characteristics of training programmes by NGOs
a)Training is closely related with other professional functions of NGOs, such as curriculum and materials development, educational research and survey, and implementation of educational programmes. Expe
riences of NGOs' activities in these fields give good effects on training programmes
b)As one instructor usually has a responsibility for one programme, schedule has continuity and flexibility and instructors can understand personality of each participant.
c)Experienced instructors are trying to encourage interaction among participants. Participatory activities such as presentations and performances by participants, group work, and role playing are adequately arranged in the programmes.
d)As training is considered an continuous process, follow-up programme, regular refresh programme and monthly review programme are important.
e)NGOs' programmes are rather flexible and innovative comparing to government programmes, and they are sometimes based on new learner-centred pedagogy, As government and international organizations also come to be aware of the importance of this kind of approach, they try to utilize professional NGOs with experience and resources. While NGOs are able to get firm financial foundations In the partnership with governments, government policies and directions might give influences on their programmes. Less