|Budget Amount *help
¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,300,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥400,000 (Direct Cost: ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥400,000 (Direct Cost: ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥500,000)
1 The research was conducted to reveal the gender bias as in the Japanese renderings of some western masterpieces introduced during Meiji era, such as A Dog of Flanders and Little Lord Fauntleroy. It was found that holiness was introduced to the girlishness of Alois in the process of intertextual retellings. As for Kato Takeo's renderings of Little Lord Fauntleroy, the target audience, that is to say, children or women, determines the frame and the technique of description in each adaptation. It is obvious that the male adapter equates women with children, regarding them as people who need to be cultivated.
2 Kenage emerged as a key concept to analyze the views on children in the modern history of Japan. Some characters in the famous retold stories, for example, Marco, Remi and Nello, often show dual aspects of kenage ; one is 'pitiful and moving', while the other is 'brave and courageous.' However, in some pieces which are retold only for girl readers, the rewriters tend to emphasize the former aspect of kenage : the various renderings of "Little Nell" are good examples to explain the case.
3 Two issues of gender bias, universal and typically Japanese, are to be m Japanese renderings for children. Further investigations should be made on each aspect of the biases in order to consider the wide varieties of Japanese modern culture.