|Budget Amount *help
¥4,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,100,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,100,000)
According to "The Recognition of the Expression of Feeling in Cross Cultural Communication", this study focuses on "smiling", which is a common expression of feeling among different cultures. Four research topics were investigated. First, a questionnaire was administered to Japanese university students, and the results were analyzed, showing the influence of the permissible range of various kinds of smile, which were determined by contextual difference, such as situation and partner. As a result of Cluster Analysis, it was found that the permissible range differed due to context, even though the same kind of feeling was experienced. Furthermore, the result of the analysis of the relationship between the questionnaire items which measured social attitudes and the kinds of smile indicated that those subjects who had a positive attitude towards social affairs displayed distinctive characteristics concerning the permissible range of the smile.
Second, the same kind of questionnaire was admi
nistered to American university students. The results of Cluster Analysis indicated a contextual difference of recognition concerning the smile between the Japanese and the American students. It was clear that contextual variation occurred according to whether the situation was relaxed or comfortable for each group of subjects.
Third, an experiment which showed visual images of an American man and woman to the Japanese students was conducted, in which an analysis of the relation between daily involvement with Westerners and the recognition of the smile was made. The results indicated that the recognition of the smile itself is categorized as being universal, and that it is not related to the quantity of cross cultural exposure. Furthermore, the size and quality of the visual images, which were used in the present study as the visual stimuli, shows the possibility of them being a standard for future studies of a similar kind.
Fourth, a Web investigation study was administered to both Japanese and American groups of university students, using the above visual images and CGI. The data was analyzed to determine the SD, and also to analyze the change of expression of the ‘smiling' and the ‘straight' face. The influence of the model was inevitable. However, it was clear that a ‘smiling' face increased the pleasant impression, and enhanced the image of one as being young, active, and individual. The evaluation of the ‘smiling' face was in accord between the Japanese and American students. However the response to the ‘straight' face was quite different. This result indicates that the role of the ‘smiling' face is more significant for personal recognition in cross cultural encounters than in those in one's own culture. Less