|Budget Amount *help
¥1,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥900,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,000,000)
This paper builds on Tanaka (2001), "Acquisition of Japanese voice structures by English, Korean, Chinese, and Indonesian-Malay speaking learners," in which Korean speakers exhibited a different tendency than other native language (L1) speakers. A new survey was conducted in Korea using only Korean speakers to determine the effects from L1, learning environment (Korea and Japan), and learners' psycholinguistic factors in acquiring voice.
Subjects in Korea and Japan took a written production test, producing voice structures in response to pictures, with a follow-up study. Some underwent an L1 test and interview. Of 120 participants in Korea, 20 were excluded for having resided in Japan more than one month, and follow-up tests were only possible with 17 subjects. 125 subjects in Japan attending Japanese language schools or Japan-Korea exchange programs participated and 68 were followed-up. Initial data analysis reveals the following :
(1) The acquisition context for Korean voice structures
is superior to other L1 speakers (Tanaka, 2001).
(2) However, even advanced learners do not produce the "causative passive," non-existent in Korean.
(3) Beginners produce "possessive passives" matching Korean and acquisition is stable, but the "possessive passive" lacking correspondence is delayed.
(3) Korean has benefactive -te kureru but not -te morau. Other L1 speakers produce -te kureru first, but Korean speakers favor -te morau. A transfer effect cannot be confirmed.
(3) Korean point of view restriction (speaker occupies subject) is unchanged and direct passives appear early due to unity of point of view.
From these points, delayed acquisition is predicted for structures not found in L1 and easy acquisition for concepts that exist. However, typological causes and complexity of language structures are predicted to interrelate. In the future, the developmental sequence of voice (based on implicational scaling) and L1 and L2 effects will be compared to actual emerging sequences derived from follow-up investigations. Less