|Budget Amount *help
¥113,880,000 (Direct Cost : ¥87,600,000、Indirect Cost : ¥26,280,000)
Fiscal Year 2006 : ¥11,180,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,600,000、Indirect Cost : ¥2,580,000)
Fiscal Year 2005 : ¥11,180,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,600,000、Indirect Cost : ¥2,580,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥22,360,000 (Direct Cost : ¥17,200,000、Indirect Cost : ¥5,160,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥33,540,000 (Direct Cost : ¥25,800,000、Indirect Cost : ¥7,740,000)
Fiscal Year 2002 : ¥35,620,000 (Direct Cost : ¥27,400,000、Indirect Cost : ¥8,220,000)
In the mouse, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the same odorant receptor (OR) converge their axons to a specific set of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.
1)We show that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signals that regulate the expression of axon guidance molecules are essential for the OR-instructed axonal projection. Genetic manipulations of ORs, stimulatory G protein, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and cAMP response element-binding protein shifted the axonal projection sites along the anteriorposterior axis in the olfactory bulb. Thus, it is the OR-derived cAMP signals, rather than direct action of OR molecules, that determine the target destinations of OSNs.
2)To study how ORinstructed axonal fasciculation is controlled, we searched for genes whose expression profiles are correlated with the expressed ORs. Using the transgenic mouse in which the majority of OSNs express a particular OR, we identified such genes coding for the homophilic adhesive molecules Kirrel2/Kirrel3 and repulsive molecules ephrin-A5/EphA5. In the CNGA2 knockout mouse, where the odor-evoked cation influx is disrupted, Kirrel2 and EphA5 were downregulated, while Kirrel3 and ephrin-A5 were upregulated, indicating that these genes are transcribed in an activity-dependent manner. Mosaic analysis demonstrated that gain of function of these genes generates duplicated glomeruli. We propose that a specific set of adhesive/ repulsive molecules, whose expression levels are determined by OR molecules, regulate the axonal fasciculation of OSNs during the process of glomerular map formation.