HAYAMI Akira Reitaku University, Faculty of International Economics, Professor, 国際経済学部, 教授 (40051164)
OKADA Aoi Teikyo University, Department of Sociology, Associate Professor, 文学部社会学科, 助教授 (50246005)
|Budget Amount *help
¥3,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,600,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,200,000)
Fiscal Year 2002 : ¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
This study examines the life course of peasants and their social network using population registers of Japan during 1850-1871. Large cross-sectional data covering 149 villages are used, drawing from the five different regions : Makabe (in current Ibaraki prefecture), Tama (Tokyo), Hisai (Mie), Echizen (Fukui), and Bicchu (Okayama). The own-children method of fertility estimation, singulate mean age at marriage, and Hammel-Laslett model of household structure are applied to reveal the regional variation in marriage, fertility and household structure on the eve of Japanese industrialization. Earlier age at marriage, earlier transfer of headship, larger household size, as well as lower rate of female headship are found in Makabe and Tama, compared to the other three regions in the western Japan. These characteristics are found to be associated with the stem family orientation of the household structure. Beyond the regional variation, the household economic status is found to be clearly negatively correlated to age at marriage, and positively correlated with fertility and the complexity of the households. The geographic and social mobility of peasants via marriage, adoption and service are also influenced by the household economic status. These findings are important in bridging the gap between 1846 and 1872, where official population records are missing in Japan. The report discusses the benefit of using cross-sectional data, which so far have been disregarded by historical demographers in Japan, and suggests the necessity of further empirical investigation of the regional variation to further understanding of the relationship between family and demographic patterns.