|Budget Amount *help
¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,500,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2002 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
This project intended to examine elementary teacher education in India, especially, the DIET System, which was introduced from 1987, after India's second National Policy on Education in 1986. The system, District Institute of Education and Training, aims at promoting the Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a decentralized manner, and producing primary/elementary school teachers who will be in service in the neighboring local communities. Chapter 1 examines elementary teacher training in India after independence in 1947. It was found that the expansion of elementary school education caused serious shortage of elementary school teachers, and that each State Government, that was in charge of school education at that time, established more teacher training institutions. Moreover, some State Government organized, for example, Mobile Training Squads, visiting villages and train young school teachers. The importance of teacher training was repeatedly stated in the educational an
nual report compiled by the Central Government and the well-know report of the Education Commission in 1964-66, but India's first National Policy on Education 1968 didn't state any clear strategy for elementary teacher training because there had been too much differences in the condition of primary and elementary education in each State and it was not possible for the Central to articulate a nation-wide plan for teacher education.
The Chapter 2 deals with some historical aspects in teacher training in India. Although India had rich learning tradition, indigenous primary education was on decline in the beginning of the 19th century because of the expansion of the power of the Briatin. The British raj finally decided to introduce modern school education in the middle of the 19th century, but their main concern was not the diffusion of primary education in the masses of India, but an effective control of the Indian continent. Indigenous village school teachers, whose qualification was not very high but who lived together with local communities, vanished from Indian educational scene, and modern school teacher training began in a small-scale. The shortage of school masters had been reported in the reports compiled by the raj and these reports mentioned that teacher the quality of teacher training was insufficient.
The Chapter 3 traces how the DIET System was planned as the first Indian nation-wide strategy for promoting elementary education and producing school teachers. The System is expected to be the third tire for the UEE and each institute has been given some autonomy, for example, compiling text books in local languages. More than 400 DIETs have established so far and most of them have already launched elementary teacher training course. The DIETs in the States of Delhi, Haryana and Maharashtra were researched and analyzed. Delhi and Haryana began establishing DIETs since 1986 and most of the successful students became school teachers in these States. Maharashtra elementary school in the teaching practice period. Most of the trainees appreciate practical subjects, for example, learning teaching methods and participating in practice teaching, but many of them are rather critical of theoretical studies like pedagogy and educational history in India. Further research is required so that how teacher trainees recognize the expected role model as school teachers could be analyzed. Less