Fundamental Research for constructing the History of Sanskrit Pronunciation in Japan
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||HIROSHIMA UNIVERSITY|
NUMOTO Katsuaki Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Education, Professor, 大学院・教育学研究科, 教授 (40033500)
|Project Period (FY)
2002 – 2005
Completed(Fiscal Year 2005)
|Budget Amount *help
¥3,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,100,000)
Fiscal Year 2005 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
Fiscal Year 2002 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
|Keywords||Kunten Materials / Buddhist Scriptures / Sanskrit Characters / Sanskrit Pronunciation / Dharani Section / Chinese Characters / Sino-Japanese / 梵字音 / 梵語 / 日本語史 / 悉曇学 / 四声|
I have been doing the investigation and research about Kunten materials of Esoteric Buddhist Scriptures possessed by old temples in Japan over many years. While investigating, I have noted a large number of dharani sections in the Esoteric Buddhist Scriptures had been learned with the original Sanskrit notation without being transliterated into Chinese characters especially from the early stages of the Heian period to the Kamakura period.
For the past four years, I have been able to investigate many manuscripts owned by Ishiyama-dera Temple Kozan-ji Temple To-ji Temple and some other temples, by this grant. As a result, collection of about 700 data of the Sanskrit materials was attained. I showed the data in this report. Furthermore, I analyzed and examined the collected data and I have been trying to build the history of the Sanskrit pronunciation in Japan and correct the existing theory of the history of the Sino-Japanese pronunciation in Japan.
The foundation of the Sanskrit phonology
of Japan was carried out by the Tendai scholar monk Ennin (794-864) who crossed over to China and regularly strove for acquisition of Esoteric Buddhism for ten years. The main purpose of Ennin's study was acquisition of Sanskrit chantings woven into the learning method of Esoteric Buddhism. After that, it was systematized as the Japanese Sittan study by the Tendai monk Annen (841-905) and some other monks. The readings of original Sanskrit were transmitted mainly in the Tendai sect of Buddhism, and next also in the Shingon sect of Buddhism. It is thought that the study of Sanskrit readings has gradually shifted to the readings of Japanized Sanskrit sounds transliterated into Kanjis or Katakanas. I proved that the study of original Sanskrit readings in the first half of the Heian period had big influence on old Japanese language at the following points : distinction of voiced sounds and unvoiced sounds, distinction of aspirated sounds and non-aspirated sounds, distinction of plain sounds and contracted sounds, the base of formation of the Japanese syllabary table, etc.
As mentioned above, I have confirmed that the negotiation between Japanese language and Sanskrit readings had affected the Japanese phoneme system and the Japanese notation system in old Japan. I have publicized details about these as shown in the following chapter. Less
Research Products (27results)