|Budget Amount *help
¥2,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2005 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 2002 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
I conducted a survey to examine relationships among population density, territory size, winter food quantity and quality, and reproductive success for adult females in the Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus, in three study areas : Shimokita (0-240 m above sea level) in Aomori Prefecture, Asahi (500-1100 m) in Yamagata Prefecture, and Kamikochi (1500-2000 m) in Nagano Prefecture. Mean population densities were 14.2 individuals/km^2 at Shimokita, 7.4 /km^2 at Asahi, and 1.6 /km^2 at Kamikochi. Mean annual territory sizes for adult females were 10.5 ha at Shimokita, 29.8 ha at Asahi, and 49.8 ha at Kamikochi. I determined reproductive success by noting which adult females gave birth, and whose overwintering kids survived until May. Mean reproductive success was 38.1% at Shimokita, 29.6% at Asahi, and 15.8% at Kamikochi. To assess winter food quantity, I defined the total basal area (mm^2) at snow surface of trunks of edible trees along new serow traces per 10 m (× 1 m width) on the snow as the food availability index (FAI). The FAI was 1871.4 at Shimokita, 1236.2 at Asahi, and 869.8 at Kamikochi. I defined the number of fresh feeding signs by serow bites on trees found along new serow traces per 10 m (× 1 m width) on the snow as feeding efficiency (FE). The FE value was 59.1 at Shimokita, 38.2 at Asahi, and 10.4 at Kamikochi. I found correlations between territory size and population density, between FAI and FE, between FAI and territory size, and between FAI and reproductive success. These results suggest that a small range size and high reproductive success, which are supported by better food supply, result in a high population density at Shimokita, where the elevation is low and the climatic conditions milder, whereas Kamikochi is a subalpine area with severe winter climatic conditions.