IBUKI Yuko University of Shizuoka, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Research Associate, 環境科学研究所, 助手 (30236781)
TERAO Yoshiyasu University of Shizuoka, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Professor, 環境科学研究所, 教授 (60046282)
GOTO Ayako School of Administration & Informatics, Professor, 経営情報学部, 教授 (80046284)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
Chlorinated derivatives of bisphenol A (CIBPAs) have been detected in wastewater from waste paper recycling plants. BPA and CIBPAs are always exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the environment and consequently various photoproducts might be produced. we investigated the cytotoxicity and chemical structure of photoproducts of BPA and CIBPAs (3-chlorobisphenol A (3-CIBPA), 3,3'-dichlorobisphenol A (3,3'-diCIBPA) and 3,3',5-trichlorobisphenol A (3,3',5-triCIBPA)) after UV irradiation (UVA, UVB and UVC). The cytotoxicities of 3-CIBPA and 3,3'-diCIBPA on Jurkat cells were higher than that of BPA and 3,3',5-triCIBPA. In addition, the toxicity of CIBPAs were increased by the irradiation of UVB and UVC at 100J/cm^2 and decreased at 1000J/cm^2 in comparison with those at 100J/cm^2, indicating that their structures had changed. 3-Hydroxybisphenol A (3-OHBPA) was detected in the photoproducts of 3-CIBPA irradiated with UVB and UVC at 100J/cm^2, and 3-OHBPA and 3-chloro-3'-hydroxybisphenol A were detected in those of 3,3'-diCIBPA. However, these hydroxylated BPAs were not detected in the photoproducts exposed to 1000J/cm^2. The cytotoxicity of 3-OHBPA was the almost same as CIBPAs after UVB and UVC irradiation. These results indicated that the formation of hydroxylated BPAs might contribute to the increase of toxicity by UV irradiation because 3-OHBPA has higher cytotoxicity than that of BPA and CIBPAs. CIBPAs showed higher estrogenic activity than BPA, whereas their photoproducts indicated no agonist activities for the estrogen receptor. Treatment with UVB-irradiated CIBPAs caused typical apoptosis with chromatin condensation and increase of caspase 3 activity. These results showed the importance of investigating the combined effects of aromatic environmental pollutants and UV radiation on organisms in the environment.