A Study of the Relationship Among Trust, Culture, and Efficiency in Economic Transactions
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||Hitotsubashi University|
ARAI Kazuhiro Hitotsubashi University, Graduate School of Economics, Professor, 大学院・経済学研究科, 教授 (40134879)
|Project Period (FY)
2003 – 2005
Completed(Fiscal Year 2005)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,800,000)
Fiscal Year 2005 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
|Keywords||trust / culture / efficiency / neoclassical economics / game experiments / questionnaires / promotion of trust / pay-for-performance system / 国際比較 / 教育 / 信頼と能力 / 信頼と外的圧力 / 信頼と自己利益 / 信頼と組織 / マスメディアと信頼形成 / 信頼と権限 / 信頼と統計的差別 / 組織 / 不完備契約 / 生産関数 / 心理学 / コミットメント / 競争均衡|
This project has generated results regarding economic theory, game experiments, and questionnaires. In addition, the investigator undertook view exchanges, research collaborations, and seminar talks both in Japan and abroad.
Theoretical studies were conducted to argue that neoclassical assumptions about production functions play the role of ignoring the importance of trust and that trust is indispensable for efficiency even in markets because of contract incompleteness. How to promote trust in organizations, markets, and society was discussed using concepts such as the density and structure of trust. Furthermore, it was shown that intensions cannot be distinguished from competence, external pressure, or self-interest, and it would be fruitless to do so in trust studies. The efficiency criterion was recommended to be applied to trust studies instead of simply arguing whether trust exists as in psychology.
The effects of self-interest and culture on the results of game experiments were ana
lyzed using students as subjects. It was demonstrated that persuasion generates much cooperation, equality is an influential value, and other people's monitoring enhances trust and efficiency. Favorable effects of culture on efficiency are increased by such cultural activities as persuasion, punishment, and monitoring.
Questionnaires to students about trust were undertaken in cooperation with Swedish researchers. It was found that there are similarities and differences between Japan and Sweden in the relative magnitude of trust in various dimensions of trust, family trust does not reduce various kinds of trust, and education and culture are very important determinants of trust. Those who rely heavily on signals for trust decisions are less cooperative (trustworthy).
Questionnaires to general workers were undertaken using a research company to investigate how introduction of the pay-for-performance system has changed trust and worker incentives. It was found that this system has several important institutional shortcomings in such points as worker incentives and efficiency. Less
Research Products (16results)