A Model Arm with Artificial Skin and Blood Vessels for Practicing Drawing Blood
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||Yokohama City University College of Nursing|
NOMURA Akemi Yokohama City Univ. College of Nursing, Associate Professor, 助教授 (10290040)
YUUKI Teruko Yokohama City Univ., College of Nursing, Professor, 教授 (90310474)
ANDO Satoe Yokohama City Univ., College of Nursing, Associate Professor, 助教授 (80290039)
|Project Period (FY)
2003 – 2004
Completed(Fiscal Year 2004)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,400,000)
Fiscal Year 2004 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2003 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
|Keywords||Drawing blood / Artificial skin and blood vessels / Insertion force when drawing blood / Instructing novice nurses / 人工皮膚・人工血管装着モデル / 学習支援教材|
The purpose of this study was to develop a model consisting of artificial skin with artificial blood vessels that could be used by novice nurses to practice taking blood samples with ease and safety.
After evaluating a number of materials, the best material for the artificial skin was found to be 0.5 mm natural rubber, and for the blood vessels, clear silicon rubber tubing with a 3 mm exterior diameter and a lumen of 2 mm. In combination, these materials permitted a needle insertion force very close to that of a living human arm.
II. Construction of the model
For safety's sake, a sleeve that could be fitted onto a human arm was fabricated with 5 layers. Neoprene rubber was used for layers 1, 3, and 4. Layer 1 was 3 mm thick and coated on its inner surface (the surface that would come in contact with the arm) with synthetic fiber. To prevent a mis-inserted needle from penetrating to the arm, layer 2 was constructed of light, pliable #60 mesh brass netting. Layer 3 was 1.5 mm. L
ayer 4 was 2 mm and divided longitudinally into 3 sections. Two lengths of silicon tubing were sandwiched between the layers and sections, and layer 5, the natural rubber, was coated over the outer surface. The completed model was less than 8 mm in thickness, pliable and easily fitted over a person's arm, and could be used in conjunction with a tourniquet.
III. Measurement of needle insertion force when drawing blood
Subjects and materials
5 human subjects : 1 male and 4 females ; median age 50.4 years
The new model
A commercially available model arm (Kyoto Kagaku)
A commercially available model sleeve (Kyoto Kagaku)
Operators : 4 nurses of the teaching staff
Method : A contact gauge (air pack type, AMI Techno Co.) combined with a differential pressure gauge developed by the researchers was used. The needles were new 22G hypodermic needles (Terumo Co.). The number of insertions was once each for the human subjects, and 2-3 times each for the new model, the commercial model arm, and the commercial sleeve, for a total of 32 times.
Ethical considerations : All the human subjects understood clearly the purpose and significance of the test and freely consented to participate.
Results and discussion
Average insertion pressure in kPa was 1.86 for the human subjects, 5.88 for the new model, 7.25 for the commercial model arm, and 9.77 for the commercial sleeve. Thus the insertion pressure for the new model was closer to the pressure used for the human body than the pressure needed for the commercial models when practicing blood drawing. Less
Research Products (5results)