|Budget Amount *help
¥4,290,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥990,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥910,000 (Direct Cost: ¥700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥210,000)
Fiscal Year 2009: ¥1,040,000 (Direct Cost: ¥800,000、Indirect Cost: ¥240,000)
Fiscal Year 2008: ¥910,000 (Direct Cost: ¥700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥210,000)
Fiscal Year 2007: ¥1,430,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥330,000)
Background : It is well-known that the offspring from mother who smoked during pregnancy become to be obese in the future. However, whether this risk factor is independent of other confounding factors remains unknown. In this study, the cross-sectional assessment of relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and body composition of offspring who examined both life style and passive smoking screening tests.
Methods : One thousand-three hundred and sixty-six elementary school children (male : female ratio 1.1:1.0, aged from 9 to 10 years old) of grade 4 were enrolled into this study. All children had both life style and passive smoking tests. Urinary cotinine measurement and items of life style screening test (body weight, body length, body mass index (BMI), obesity index (OI), blood test of liver function and lipid profile, questionnaires of maternal smoking and life style) were evaluated in terms of the relation with maternal smoking. In addition, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguano
sine (8-OHdG) concentration was measured in 80 children selected at random to assess the relation with oxidative stress.
Results : Both BMI and OI were significantly increased in children with mother who smoked during pregnancy compared to children with the mother who never smoked (BMI : 17.2±2.7kg/m2 vs 16.9±2.5kg/m2, p=0.016、OI : 2.7±14.3% vs 0.4±14.0% , p=0.003). The degree of increment was positively correlated with the periods of maternal smoking. And the increments of BMI and OI were resulted from increased body weight and shortened height. In the confounding factors, "breakfast with family", "watching television at dinner", "eat and drink before sleep", "television watching more than 2 hours", "sleep duration less than 8 hours" and "play sports" were statistically significant. BMI and OI were significantly increased in children with maternal smoking during pregnancy in every confounding factor. On the other hand, urinary 8-OHdG concentration was negatively correlated with the BMI in children who had more than 1.3 ng/ml of urinary cotinine, and therefore, may be related with the basal metabolism.
Conclusion : Maternal smoking is a risk factor of increasing BMI and OI when children whose mother smoked during pregnancy become to 9 to 10 years old, and may be independent of other confounding factors. Therefore, all of young females who reach to age of pregnancy should not smoke. Less