|Budget Amount *help
¥2,860,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,200,000、Indirect Cost: ¥660,000)
Fiscal Year 2020: ¥1,430,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥330,000)
Fiscal Year 2019: ¥1,430,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥330,000)
|Outline of Annual Research Achievements
This research program aims to develop an advanced neuroprosthetic technology that uses brain-controlled activation of upper-limb muscles corresponding to grasping and reaching movements. Specifically, the objectives of this research are to develop: (1) a brain-computer interface (BCI) system that can detect hand opening / closing and reaching movements using cortical (brain) oscillatory signals; and (2) a neuroprosthetic technology that can activate the upper-limb muscle corresponding to grasping and reaching movements. Finally, the research program will aim to integrate the two systems and test the feasibility of using the BCI-controlled neuroprosthetic. This technology is expected to contribute to the restoration of upper-limb function. We have implemented the first version of the BCI system and proposed the underlying mechanisms of BCI-controlled FES system for recovery of upper-limb function. Moreover, we have been testing how electrical stimulation can be used to facilitate cortical and subcortical excitability.
|Current Status of Research Progress
Current Status of Research Progress
2: Research has progressed on the whole more than it was originally planned.
(1) In the research related to the development of the BCI system, we have implemented the first version of the BCI system and proposed the underlying mechanisms of BCI-controlled FES system for recovery of upper-limb function. The findings are summarized below:  M. Milosevic, C. Marquez-Chin, K. Masani, T. Nomura, M. Hirata, M.R. Popovic, and K. Nakazawa, "Why brain-controlled neuroprosthetics matter: Mechanisms underlying electrical stimulations of muscles and nerves in rehabilitation", In review - BioMedical Engineering Online.  Y. Suzuki, F. Tanaka, T. Nomura, M. Milosevic, "Muscle specific modulation of corticospinal excitability during upper-limb motor imagery and motor execution tasks", To be submitted to Neuroscience Letters.
(2) In the research related to the development of neuroprosthetic technology, we have been testing how electrical stimulation can be used to activate the central nervous system. The findings are summarized below:  T. Kato, A. Sasaki, H. Yokoyama, M. Milosevic, and K. Nakazawa, "Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary commands on the spinal reflex excitability of remote limb muscles", Experimental Brain Research, vol. 237(12), pp. 3195-3205, 2019.  M. Milosevic, T. Nakanishi, A. Sasaki, A. Yamaguchi, M.R. Popovic, and K. Nakazawa, “Cortical re-organization after traumatic brain injury can be elicited using functional electrical stimulation therapy: A case report,” To be submitted to NeuroImage.
|Strategy for Future Research Activity
In the future, we will continue to develop the BCI system for activation of the upper-limb muscles using a neuroprosthetic technology. Specifically, the first step, which is a BCI system for detection of upper-limb movements using cortical (brain) activation signals (study 1) is implemented and it is being tested. Next, we will: evaluate sensitivity of cervical spinal stimulation to selectively activate spinal circuity projecting to the upper-limbs (study 2); and examine short-term neuroplastic changes in the central nervous system that occur as a result of using BCI-controlled cervical spinal stimulation (study 3). Overall, the aim will be to develop and test the new system. After successfully confirming operation of the system with sufficient accuracy, the feasibility of the system will be tested with able-bodied individuals.