|Budget Amount *help
¥48,360,000 (Direct Cost: ¥37,200,000、Indirect Cost: ¥11,160,000)
Fiscal Year 2013: ¥6,110,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,410,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥8,450,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,500,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,950,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥8,450,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,500,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,950,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥7,930,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,830,000)
Fiscal Year 2009: ¥17,420,000 (Direct Cost: ¥13,400,000、Indirect Cost: ¥4,020,000)
East Asian countries surrounding Japan Sea, such as Japan, China, Korea and Russia, have shown significant change of atmospheric conditions with fast industrial development. Atmospheric behaviors of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (NPAH) were studied in this area. Their atmospheric concentrations decreased in Japanese cities by the effective countermeasures against automobile exhaust. However, several cities in China and Russia showed the increasing tendency of the concentrations. By using the analytical results, the emission inventory and the chemical transport model were newly developed. In the atmosphere, on the other hand, several oxidized derivatives of PAHs and NPAHs formed through secondary formation were identified. Several compound of metabolites and secondary formed derivatives of PAHs and NPAHs showed strong biological activities such as mutagenicity and endocrine disruption.