|Budget Amount *help
¥18,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥14,000,000、Indirect Cost: ¥4,200,000)
Fiscal Year 2013: ¥4,420,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,400,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,020,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥4,290,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥990,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥4,290,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥990,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥5,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,000,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,200,000)
Traditionally the fitness is measured as the number of offspring in the next generation. Because this (arithmetic) mean is the short-term measure of reproductive success, we cannot detect the nature of adaptation in stochastic environments. From the viewpoint of long-term persistence, we demonstrate the adaptation for persistence in a various examples either theoretically, empirically, or both. Specifically we show that some species of termites adjust the sex ratio of their alate (winged form: reproductive offspring) toward female biases, when male kings are replaced in an old colony as an outcome of kin selection. We also solve the analytic solutions for the optimal strategy for risk-spreading. Other accomplishments of adaptive long-term persistence include the expansion to human economic behavior, dynamic decision-making, sex ratio adjustment in stochastic environments, apoptosis in budding yeasts, and disease control in the SIR model.