|Budget Amount *help
¥19,110,000 (Direct Cost: ¥14,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥4,410,000)
Fiscal Year 2013: ¥3,510,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥810,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥5,850,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,500,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,350,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥5,070,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,900,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,170,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥4,680,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,600,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,080,000)
This study aimed to elucidate the dynamism of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Papua New Guinea where pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine were added to the first-treatment policy of malaria in 2000. We found significant selection of resistant-parasites to both antimalarial drugs. Emergence of resistance to pyrimethamine preceded sulfadoxine. Until 2011, all parasites harbored the resistant-related multi-locus mutations for chloroquine and pyrimethamine. Nearly 80% of parasites harbored resistant-related mutations for sulfadoxine, which migrated from Southeast Asia. Parasites showing resistance to artemisinin was not identified in the study period. This may be partly explained the fact that artemisinin combination therapy has been implemented in our study area around 2012 despite it was officially introduced in 2010.