ITOU Makoto Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Humanities, Professor, 人文学部, 助教授 (60183175)
MABUCHI Satoru Hotkaido Toukai University, Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies, Professor, 国際文化学部, 教授 (50209681)
ISHII Masao Mie University, Faculty of Humanities, Professor, 人文学部, 教授 (20136576)
TAMAKI Yasuaki Shizuoka Prefecture University, Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies, Professor, 国際関係学部, 教授 (90192640)
HORIE Shunichi Chukyo Women's University, Faculty of Humanities, Associate Professor, 人文学部, 助教授 (50190244)
The main concerns of the present study are the mutual relationships between contemporary nation-states and ethnic political cultures. Political culture means the total system of institutions, values, discourses, behaviors, and belief systems concerning the exercise of power. In the broadest sense of the term, power means the ability to a person or social unit to influence the conduct and decision-making of another through the control over energetic forms in the latter's environment.
In this joint study, we have engaged the social anthropological fieldwork in each region on the local politics and political culture. Goda studies the political culture and discourse of the Bontok in Northern Luzon, Philippines focusing on the Bontok's peace-pact institution and customary law, adaptation strategies to the urban life in Baguio City. Nagasaka studies local politics of Ilokano in Ilocos Norte, Northen Luzon, Philippines. His main concerns are overseas migration and transformation of the town fi
esta celebration in Ilokano town.
Tamaki studies the adaptation strategy of Aeta people or negrito in central Luzon, Philippines. They are originally hunters and gatherers but because of the influences of modernization and economic development, they find themselves living in the center of modern city. To apply their traditional technology of daily life, they tried to adopt the city life by selling local medicines as benders. Tamaki studies these people's life and subsistence strategy.
Barbosa discusses the local politics of Waray in Northern Leyte, Philippines. The Waray's main subsistence economy is sea fishing. Barbosa focuses on their customary system of fishing and its relation to the outer world. He analyses the local system to police their own fishing grounds through a local self-defense organization.
Mabuchi's main concern is the historical transition of local political systems of coastal Ami in Taiwan. He gathered the data on the three political systems, i.e., matrilineal kinship structure of Ami, village headman system, the local administration system under the Japanese colonization and contemporary government system. He shows their great flexiblity in adapting to the strong influences of national policies to the local politics and tries to show how the authority of the village chief revived in their culture.
Horie discusses ethnic consciousness and formation of ethnic identity in Taiwan. He posits that there are at least two main types of ethnic identity in Taiwan, i.e., imposed identity and self-identity. Self-identity is the ethnic identity based upon similarity of language, culture, or ethnic origin. On the other hand, the Japanese colonial government imposed a sharp distinction between the "islanders" or Han-people and "interiors" or immigrants from the Mainland China. To study the ethnic identity, he carefully analyzed the grassroots movement of Hakka people in terms of the local politics.
Endo examines the meanings of adat or customary law in the local history of Negeri Sembilan of Malaysia. He focused his study on the development project of communal rice fields in Negeri Sebilan and shows that the adat is not the stable rule but is the flexible rule to adapt the development project. To consider the transition of meaning in adat. Endo traces the influence of modernization and economic development policy upon their rice fields and customary rice paddy land.
Shamsul studies on the inter-ethnic relation of Malay people and ethnic Chinese in Negeri Sembilan of Malaysia. He studies the formation process of ethnic identities and ethnic segregation between them.
Ishii studies on the Kadayan in North Sarawak. Malaysia. Kadayan is the wet-rice cultivators and their subsistence economy is the center of their ethnic identity. However, because of the needs of cash income, they started to rise cash drops and began to abandon their traditional way of living. On the contrary, their social movement to maintain the ethnic identity seems to be activated through the re-evaluation of their traditional ritual or "makan kafun." He studies the ritual process of "makan kafun" and its relation to the formation of ethnic identity.
Ito's study is focused on the land dispute and local politics in Indonesia. He carried out the fieldwork on the land disputes of Laelae Island, South Slawesi. Laelae Island is the place where Indonesia government extended the development project for tourism. To develop the island as a tropical resort, local government tried to evacuate the native people from their original village and there was a strong opposition to this project. He studies the process of land dispute and tries to analyze the problems of development project and local politics. Less