SUDA Kazuhiro Senior Lecturer, Department of General Education Hokkai-Gakuen University, 教養部, 専任講師 (00222068)
TAWA Masataka Associate Professor, Department of Literature Kwansei-Gakuin University, 文学部, 助教授 (30217210)
GOTO Akira Associate Professor, Junior College Miyagi-Gakuin Women's College, 短期大学, 助教授 (40205589)
Main purpose of this project is first to identify the present socio-economic status of small-scale fishermen in tropical Asia and the southwestern Pacific. Second, we examine use of renewable marine resources by these fishermen in the ecological and social contexts. using quantitative and qualitative methods (time study, space use, food consumption, ratio of subsistence/commercial fishing). Third, analysis is made on the economic role of particular marine resources such as sea-cucumber, shark fin. trochus shell, mother-of-pearl shells and other commercial sea products with respect to the multi-ethnic relations as well as international trades.
Study sited cover a wide geographical area between Malacca Strait to the Solomon Island of Melanesia. These include Malacca Strait. Johor, Trennganu in Malaysia, north Sulawesi, Sangihe Is., north Maluku, Kei and Aru Is. in Indonesia, Papuan coast and the river-mouth of the Fly in Papua New Guinea, and the Lau and the Langalanga of Malaita, in the
Major findings of the present study are a) presence of diversified marine resource use in these region in terms of species, technologies employed, economic values, and socio-cultural signifecances, b) the existence of regional and inter-regional economic networks through harvest and sales of marine products, c) extensive practices of community-based customary sea tenure system and their transformation processes in line with the introduction of new technology and cash economy, d) various types of illegal fishings which have cultural, juridical and international significances.
In brief, this project clearly demonstrates that there exist ecological and socio-economic diversities and historical complexities in the maritime communities of the areas. It also suggests a vital need for further in-depth studies on the ecology, history and culture of the use of marine resources for the maritime anthropological studies as well as for sustainable development programes of countries involved in these perspectives. Less